Search OpenSanctions

Advanced

Michel Rukunda

Sanctioned entity
Michel Rukunda is subject to sanctions. See the individual program listings below.
TypePerson[sources]
NameMICHEL RUKUNDA · Makanika · Michel RUKUNDA · Michel Rukunda · RUKUNDA, Michel · 2 more...[sources]
Other nameMAKANIKA · Makanika[sources]
Weak aliasMAKANIKA · Makanika · マカニカ(Makanika)[sources]
Birth date[sources]
Place of birthMinembwe, CONGO, Democratic Republic of (was Zaire) · Minembwe, Congo DR · Minembwe, Fizi Territory, South Kivu, Congo, Democratic Republic of the · Minembwe, South Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo · Minembwe, South-Kivu · 3 more...[sources]
Gendermale[sources]
NationalityCongo - Kinshasa[sources]
CountryCongo - Kinshasa[sources]
Country of birthCongo - Kinshasa[sources]
First nameMICHEL · Michel[sources]
Last nameMakanika · RUKUNDA · Rukunda[sources]
Registration number174935527545[sources]
Second nameRUKUNDA[sources]
TitleCommander and military leader of the armed group Twirwaneho[sources]
PositionChef militaire du groupe armé Twirwaneho · Commandant · Commander and Military leader of the non-governmental armed group Twirwaneho in South Kivu, DR Congo · Commander and military leader of an armed militia, Twirwaneho · Commander and military leader of the armed group Twirwaneho · 2 more...[sources]
AddressDemocratic Republic of the Congo · Hauts Plateaux, South Kivu[sources]
Source linkgels-avoirs.dgtresor.gouv.fr · sanctionssearch.ofac.treas.gov[sources]
Created at[sources]
Modified on[sources]
Last changedLast checkedFirst seen

Descriptions

Listed pursuant to paragraph 7 (c), 7 (d), and 7 (e) of resolution 2293 (2016) as “being political and military leaders of Congolese militias, including those receiving support from outside the DRC, who impede the participation of their combatants in disarmament, demobilization and reintegration processes”; “recruiting or using children in armed conflict in the DRC in violation of applicable international law”; “planning, directing, or committing acts in the DRC that constitute human rights violations or abuses or violations of international humanitarian law, as applicable, including those acts involving the targeting of civilians, including killing and maiming, rape and other sexual violence, abduction, forced displacement, and attacks on schools and hospitals” and “acting on behalf of or at the direction of a designated individual or entity, or acting on behalf of or at the direction of an entity owned or controlled by a designated individual or entity”, as extended by resolution 2688 (2023). As a military leader of an armed Congolese militia, MICHEL RUKUNDA is involved in promulgating and supporting the group’s activities.

Australian Sanctions Consolidated List,

former Colonel of the Congolese armed forces (FARDC)

Belgian Financial Sanctions,

Michel RUKUNDA

Belgian Financial Sanctions,

Owing to his leading position in Twirwaneho and his direct involvement in the training and use of children, Michel Rukunda is therefore involved in planning, directing or committing acts that constitute serious human rights violations or abuses in the DRC. He is also responsible for sustaining the armed conflict, instability and insecurity in the DRC.

Swiss SECO Sanctions/Embargoes,

Michel Rukunda is a former Colonel of the Congolese armed forces (FARDC) and the Commander and Military leader of the non-governmental armed group Twirwaneho operating in South Kivu, which claims to represent the Banyamulenge Community.

Swiss SECO Sanctions/Embargoes,

Twirwaneho sustains the armed conflict, instability and insecurity in the DRC and is responsible for serious human rights abuses in that country, in particular through the voluntary or forced child recruitment to participate actively in hostilities, attacks against civilians and the Congolese armed forces (FARDC), and killings, such as attacks against civilians in Mikenge village in November 2021 which killed at least six persons.

Swiss SECO Sanctions/Embargoes,

In addition, Michel Rukunda has been directly involved in the military training of recruits and in the use of children, including as armed escorts.

Swiss SECO Sanctions/Embargoes,

Function/rank: Commander and Military leader of the armed group Twirwaneho in South Kivu

Swiss SECO Sanctions/Embargoes,

Designation: Commander and military leader of the armed group Twirwaneho

Swiss SECO Sanctions/Embargoes,

Listed pursuant to paragraph 7 (c), 7 (d), and 7 (e) of resolution 2293 (2016) as “being political and military leaders of Congolese militias, including those receiving support from outside the DRC, who impede the participation of their combatants in disarmament, demobilization and reintegration processes”; “recruiting or using children in armed conflict in the DRC in violation of applicable international law”; “planning, directing, or committing acts in the DRC that constitute human rights violations or abuses or violations of international humanitarian law, as applicable, including those acts involving the targeting of civilians, including killing and maiming, rape and other sexual violence, abduction, forced displacement, and attacks on schools and hospitals” and “acting on behalf of or at the direction of a designated individual or entity, or acting on behalf of or at the direction of an entity owned or controlled by a designated individual or entity”, as extended by resolution 2688 (2023). As a military leader of an armed Congolese militia, MICHEL RUKUNDA is involved in promulgating and supporting the group’s activities.

Swiss SECO Sanctions/Embargoes,

Michel RUKUNDA

EU Financial Sanctions Files (FSF),

former Colonel of the Congolese armed forces (FARDC)

EU Financial Sanctions Files (FSF),

former Colonel of the Congolese armed forces (FARDC)

EU Consolidated Travel Bans,

Michel RUKUNDA

EU Consolidated Travel Bans,

Inscrit sur la liste en application des dispositions énoncées aux alinéas c), d) et e) du paragraphe 7 de la résolution 2293 (2016), telles que réaffirmées par la résolution 2688 (2023), au motif qu'il “appartient à la direction politique et militaire de milices congolaises, dont celles qui reçoivent un appui venant de l'extérieur de la République démocratique du Congo qui font obstacle à la participation de leurs combattants aux opérations de désarmement, de démobilisation et de réinsertion”; “recrute ou utilise des enfants pour le conflit armé en République démocratique du Congo en violation du droit international applicable”; “prépare, donne l'ordre de commettre ou commet en République démocratique du Congo des actes qui constituent des violations des droits de l'homme ou atteintes à ces droits ou des violations du droit international humanitaire, selon le cas, notamment des actes dirigés contre les civils, y compris des meurtres et des mutilations, des viols et d'autres violences sexuelles, des enlèvements, des déplacements forcés et des attaques contre des écoles et des hôpitaux”; et “agit au nom ou sur instruction d'une personne ou d'une entité désignée ou agit au nom ou sur instruction d'une entité qui appartient à une personne désignée ou qu'elle contrôle”. En tant que dirigeant militaire d'une milice armée congolaise, Michel RUKUNDA participe à la promotion des activités de ce groupe armé et les appuie. Michel RUKUNDA est commandant et dirigeant militaire général du groupe armé Twirwaneho, actif dans le Sud-Kivu. Sous son commandement, ce groupe recrute des enfants dès l'âge de 12 ans pour les faire participer activement aux hostilités, notamment en tant que gardes, escortes personnelles armées de Michel RUKUNDA et combattants. Ces enfants sont recrutés presque exclusivement au sein de la communauté Banyamulenge, y compris par la force. Sous la direction de Michel RUKUNDA, le groupe armé Twigwaneho a tué et puni des civils qui refusaient de s'enrôler ou de laisser leurs enfants s'enrôler.

French Freezing of Assets,

Listed pursuant to paragraph 7 (c), 7 (d), and 7 (e) of resolution 2293 (2016) as “being political and military leaders of Congolese militias, including those receiving support from outside the DRC, who impede the participation of their combatants in disarmament, demobilization and reintegration processes”; “recruiting or using children in armed conflict in the DRC in violation of applicable international law”; “planning, directing, or committing acts in the DRC that constitute human rights violations or abuses or violations of international humanitarian law, as applicable, including those acts involving the targeting of civilians, including killing and maiming, rape and other sexual violence, abduction, forced displacement, and attacks on schools and hospitals” and “acting on behalf of or at the direction of a designated individual or entity, or acting on behalf of or at the direction of an entity owned or controlled by a designated individual or entity”, as extended by resolution 2688 (2023). As a military leader of an armed Congolese militia, MICHEL RUKUNDA is involved in promulgating and supporting the group’s activities.

UK HMT/OFSI Consolidated List of Targets,

、7

Japan Economic sanctions and list of eligible people,

に基づき、

Japan Economic sanctions and list of eligible people,

及び7

Japan Economic sanctions and list of eligible people,

「武装解除・動員解除・社会復帰(DDR)プロセスへの戦闘員の参加を妨害する、コンゴ民主共和国の国外から支援を受けているものを含むコンゴ民主共和国民兵の政治的・軍事的指導者であり」、「適用される国際法に違反して、コンゴ民主共和国における武力紛争において、子供を雇用又は使用し」、「コンゴ民主共和国において、人権侵害や虐待、国際人道法違反に該当する行為を行い、殺害や傷害、強姦及びその他の性的暴力、拉致、強制移動、学校や病院への攻撃など、民間人を標的とする行為が含まれ」、及び「指定された個人又は団体を代表して、若しくはその指示を受けて行動すること、又は指定された個人又は団体が所有若しくは支配する団体を代表して、若しくはその指示を受けて行動すること」に該当するものとしてリストに掲載されている。武装されたコンゴの民兵組織の軍事リーダーとして、同人は同グループの活動の普及及び支援に関与している。

Japan Economic sanctions and list of eligible people,

安保理決議第2688号(2023年)で延長された同決議第2293号(2016 年)7

Japan Economic sanctions and list of eligible people,

Listed pursuant to paragraph 7 (c), 7 (d), and 7 (e) of resolution 2293 (2016) as “being political and military leaders of Congolese militias, including those receiving support from outside the DRC, who impede the participation of their combatants in disarmament, demobilization and reintegration processes”; “recruiting or using children in armed conflict in the DRC in violation of applicable international law”; “planning, directing, or committing acts in the DRC that constitute human rights violations or abuses or violations of international humanitarian law, as applicable, including those acts involving the targeting of civilians, including killing and maiming, rape and other sexual violence, abduction, forced displacement, and attacks on schools and hospitals” and “acting on behalf of or at the direction of a designated individual or entity, or acting on behalf of or at the direction of an entity owned or controlled by a designated individual or entity”, as extended by resolution 2688 (2023). As a military leader of an armed Congolese militia, MICHEL RUKUNDA is involved in promulgating and supporting the group’s activities.

UN Security Council Consolidated Sanctions,

Listed pursuant to paragraph 7 (c), 7 (d), and 7 (e) of resolution 2293 (2016) as “being political and military leaders of Congolese militias, including those receiving support from outside the DRC, who impede the participation of their combatants in disarmament, demobilization and reintegration processes”; “recruiting or using children in armed conflict in the DRC in violation of applicable international law”; “planning, directing, or committing acts in the DRC that constitute human rights violations or abuses or violations of international humanitarian law, as applicable, including those acts involving the targeting of civilians, including killing and maiming, rape and other sexual violence, abduction, forced displacement, and attacks on schools and hospitals” and “acting on behalf of or at the direction of a designated individual or entity, or acting on behalf of or at the direction of an entity owned or controlled by a designated individual or entity”, as extended by resolution 2688 (2023). As a military leader of an armed Congolese militia, MICHEL RUKUNDA is involved in promulgating and supporting the group’s activities.

South African Targeted Financial Sanctions,

Relationships

Data sources

French Freezing of Assets4,934

The register lists all persons, entities and vessels subject to asset freezing measures in force on French territory, pursuant to national, European and international (UN) provisions.

France · Ministry of Economy, Finance, and Recovery

Belgian Financial Sanctions6,373

Belgium extends the European FSF sanctions list on the basis of a national terrorist list, issued by the National Security Council

Belgium · Federal Public Service Finance

Japan Economic sanctions and list of eligible people3,504

Sanctions imposed by Japan under its Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Law.

Japan · Ministry of Finance

US Trade Consolidated Screening List (CSL)19,352

The Consolidated Screening List (CSL) is a list of parties for which the United States Government maintains restrictions on certain exports, reexports, or transfers of items.

United States · Department of the Commerce - International Trade Administration

Ukraine SFMS Blacklist871

Ukraine's financial intelligence unit publishes this list of sanctioned individuals.

Ukraine · Державна служба фінансового моніторингу України (Держфінмоніторинг)

Australian Sanctions Consolidated List4,094

The Consolidated List is a list of all persons and entities who are subject to targeted financial sanctions under Australian sanctions law

Australia · Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT)

EU Consolidated Travel Bans3,894

Consolidated information about individuals who have been banned from traveling to the European Union, released as part of the EU Sanctions Map.

European Union · Estonian Presidency of the Council of the EU

EU Financial Sanctions Files (FSF)6,106

As part of the Common Foreign Security Policy the European Union publishes a sanctions list that is implemented by all member states.

European Union · European External Action Service

UK HMT/OFSI Consolidated List of Targets6,016

The United Kingom's consolidated international sanctions list.

United Kingdom · Office of Financial Sanctions Implementation

Swiss SECO Sanctions/Embargoes8,012

Switzerland manages a sanctions lists with a high degree of detail on the individuals that are subject to it's embargoes

Switzerland · State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO)

UK FCDO Sanctions List4,486

UK sanctions collated by the Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office

United Kingdom · Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office (FCDO)

UN Security Council Consolidated Sanctions1,238

The Security Council's set of sanctions serve as the foundation for most national sanctions lists.

United Nations Security Council (UN SC)

South African Targeted Financial Sanctions892

The South African FIC sanctions list, largely based on UN Security Council sanctions.

South Africa · Financial Intelligence Centre (FIC)

US OFAC Specially Designated Nationals (SDN) List30,485

The primary United States' sanctions list, specially designated nationals (SDN) part.

United States · Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC)


Source data IDs: eu-tb-logical-156550 · fr-ga-7139 · zafic-715-michel-rukunda · unsc-6908995 · gb-hmt-16381 · NK-DPc7kCHD4FamLYzxYW7Qmc · ch-seco-64716 · au-dfat-7948-2-michel-rukunda · eu-fsf-eu-10613-54 · ofac-46855 · ua-sfms-1667 · ch-seco-71211 · fr-ga-6826 · ja-mof-bb848e1bdcd064c1043e1718f98149cc988834d3 · gb-fcdo-drc0071 · au-dfat-7948-michel-rukunda

For experts: raw data explorer